The Purpose of the Gift of Tongues Project:
- Locate source literature on the subject
- digitize the original texts
- translate into English with critical notes
- trace the perception of tongues in the church from inception until modern times.
Introduction and Summaries
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The following is what has been found, indexed, translated, and critically analyzed. This list is open for additions by other researchers who have studied specific ecclesiastics or movements focusing on the christian doctrine of tongues.
The text of De Trinitate
Epiphanius on the Gift of Tongues
- A Commentary on the Problem Tongues of Corinth attributed to Epiphanius.
- Technical Notes about the Epiphanius Text on the Problem Tongues of Corinth
- The Epiphanius Text on the Tongues of Corinth in English
- The Greek Epiphanius Text on the Problem Tongues of Corinth
- The Latin Epiphanius Text on the Tongues of Corinth
- Epiphanius sets the framework for the header: Uncovering the Mysterious Tongues of Corinth found towards the end of this index.
Cyril of Jerusalem
Gregory of Nyssa
- Gregory Nazianzus’ on the doctrine of Tongues
Introduction to Gregory Nazianzus’ contribution to the tongues doctrine.
- Gregory Nazianzus’ Oration 41:15-16. A source Greek text on Oration 41:15-16
- An English Translation of Oration 41:15-16. Translated by Alex Poulos
- Gregory Nazianzus’ Oration 41:15-16 in the Latin Several Latin texts side-by-side on Oration 41:15-16
- Gregory Nazianzus’ Oration 41:15-16 in the Syriac
- An English Translation of Rufinus’ fifth century Latin of Gregory’s “On Pentecost” 41:15-16
- Is Tyrannius Rufinus a Reliable Translator?
- Nazianzus’ Tongues of Pentecost Paradox
- Maximus the Confessor’s seventh century Greek text and commentary regarding Gregory’s On Pentecost 41:16. By Alex Poulos
- Nicetas of Serrone’s 11th century Greek text and commentary regarding Gregory’s On Pentecost 41:15. and 41:16. By Alex Poulos
- See also Michael Psellos below.
- Gregory Nazianzus’ on the doctrine of Tongues
Augustine, Bishop of Hippo
Cyril of Alexandria
- An introduction to this Church Father and the reasons for translating and analyzing his works.
- Cyril of Alexandria on Tongues: Zephaniah
- Cyril of Alexandria on Tongues: Acts
- Cyril of Alexandria on Pentecost: problems with the Acts fragment
- Cyril of Alexandria on Tongues: I Corinthians
- The Mysterious αναπληρών of I Corinthians 14:16
- Cyril of Alexandria on Tongues: Conclusion
- The Greek and parallel Latin texts of Cyril of Alexandria
Basil of Seleucia
The Ambrosiaster Text on I Corinthians chapters 12-14
John of Damascus
The Venerable Bede
Andrew the Fool
- Psellos on the Christian doctrine of Tongues Intro
- An English Translation of Michael Psellos text on Pentecost
- Technical Notes on the Psellos Translation
- A Commentary and Analysis of Psellos’ Tongues of Pentecost.
- Michael Psellos 11th century Greek text and commentary regarding Gregory’s On Pentecost By Alex Poulos
- Psellos on the doctrine of Tongues in the Original Greek
1200 AD —
- Thomas Aquinas on the Miracle of Tongues Intro
- Aquinas on Psalm 54:9
- A translation of his Lectures on I Corinthians
- The Latin texts of Psalm 54:9 and Corinthians attributed to Aquinas on Tongues
- Summa Theologica, On the Grace of Tongues in English, IIa IIae q. 176
- The Latin version of On the Grace of Tongues
Note: Scroll two-thirds down the page to reach QUAESTIO 176
- Thomas Aquinas on the Miracle of Tongues The final analysis and conclusion of all his works.
1260–1500 Late Medieval Hagiographa Accounts
- Introduction to Late Medieval texts on Speaking in Tongues
- St. Anthony of Padua
- St. Matthew Speaking in Tongues
- St. Patiens
- St. Norbert of Xanten Speaking in Tongues
- St. Norbert of Xanten: the Source texts
- Tongues speaking in sixth-century Wales: St. David, Teilo, and Padarn
- Vincent Ferrer
- Francis Xavier
The unknown tongues controversy
- Jean Calvin’s Commentary on I Corinthians
- Commentaires De M. Iehan Calvin sur toutes les Epistres de l’Apostre Sainct Paul. The original French/Latin 1565 print edition. I Corinthians 14 can be found on page 293ff.
- Free Inquiry — a masterpiece on the arguments outlining miracles and why the supernatural gifts displayed by early Christians have ceased. Therefore, the Christian doctrine of tongues is a moot point in contemporary practice.
- Lightfoot on the Problem Tongues of Corinth. A digitization and analysis of the well thought out work done in the 17th century by John Lightfoot on the Problem Tongues of Corinth.
Pope Benedict the XIV
The Camisards (18th century France)
- The Camisards, tongues and prophecy An analysis of the texts related to the Camisards speaking in tongues.
- Le Théatre Sacré des Cévennes ou Regit de Diverses Merveilles. This is the original 1707 Version by Maximilien Mission. In French only.
- Les Prophètes Protestants. Réimpression de l’ouvrage intitulé, Le Théatre Sacré des Cévennes, ou Régit des Diverses Merveilles. This is an updated 1847 French version of the original text published by Maximilien Mission in 1707.
The Irvingite movement and its universal impact
- The Irvingite Movement. How an early 19th century group led by Edward Irving renewed interest in this gift and formed the basis for the modern tongues movement.
Why Ecclesiastical Writings have been neglected on this subject
The Doctrine of Glossolalia
- Introduction to the History of Glossolalia
- A History of Glossolalia: Origins
- A History of Glossolalia: Did it exist before 1879?
- A History of Glossolalia: Objections
- A History of Glossolalia: Patristic Citation
- A Critical Look at Tongues and Montanism
- Eusebius on Montanism: the Latin and Greek text
- Rohdes, “Psyche: the Cult of Souls” An instrumental work on Greek pagan religions. It does not directly address tongues, but can be inferred and is cited by higher criticists in this manner.
- Delphi Prophetesses and Christian tongues Did the Pythian prophetesses speak in tongues?
- Charles Parham on Speaking in Tongues. Charles Parham is considered one of the fathers of pentecostalism.
The Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles, California
- The Apostolic Faith Newspaper on the Azusa Street Revival.
- The Apostolic Faith Newspaper. A digitized copy of the first volume published in 1906.
- The complete publications of The Apostolic Faith Newspaper can be found at the Pentecostal Archives.
- Early Pentecostal Tongues: Notes and Quotes A digest of quotes from early pentecostal and holiness periodicals from 1880 to 1930 on speaking in tongues.
- Modern Pentecostal Books on Speaking in Tongues.
- Early Pentecostal Books on Speaking in Tongues.
- V. P. Simmons on the Church History of Tongues. A historical portrait of tongues from the first to twentieth century by one of the earliest pentecostal writers.
- A New Kind of Tongues. How the definition of tongues changed somewhere between 1906 and 1907. A summary and link to Gary B. McGee’s excellent article on the pentecostal movement in the late 1800s and beyond.
A history of Glossolalia in the Pentecostal Movement
- Early Pentecostal Tongues: Part 1 An introduction to this series
- Early Pentecostal Tongues: Part 2 The Missionary Tongues, the Missionary Dilemma and Gibberish.
- Early Pentecostal Tongues: Part 3 Pentecostal solutions to the Missionary Tongues and Gibberish Crisis.
- Part 4: Pentecostals, Tongues and Higher Criticism Pentecostal Reliance on Higher Criticism for defining Modern Tongues .
The Doctrine of Cessationism
- Cessationism, Miracles, and Tongues: Part 1 Introduction and General Summary to this series.
- Cessationism, Miracles, and Tongues: Part 2 A medieval background to magic and miracle along with an overview of the Protestant view of miracles in the early church.
- Cessationism, Miracles, and Tongues: Part 3 The question of miracles from Martin Luther to the Church of England.
- Cessationism, Miracles, and Tongues: Part 4 Cessationism from the 1800s until today.
The Tongues of Corinth
- The Tongues of Corinth infographic
- Introduction to the Tongues of Corinth Series
- The Role of Hebrew in the Jewish-Aramaic World.
- Greek, Hellenic Judaism and the Problem Tongues of Corinth
- Hebrew as the First Language of Mankind
- The Public Reader, the Synagogue, and Corinth
- The Public Reader in the Church
- The Language of Instruction in the Corinthian Church
- Lightfoot on the Problem Tongues of Corinth
- It is highly recommended to read the series on Epiphanius on the tongues of Corinth found in the 300 — 450 AD section of this page. This forms the basis for this series on Corinth.
Other Related Articles/Videos
- The difference between Language and Tongues
- Jacob the Min
- Thoughts on Ecstasy, Private Revelation, and Prophecy
- Kenneth E. Hagin speaking in Tongues. Kenneth Hagin was a Pentecostal Preacher and considered the father of the Word of Faith movement.
- Reinhard Bonnke speaking in tongues. A short clip of a crusade meeting with Reinhard Bonnke, a Pentecostal evangelist who focuses on the African continent, and influential for over 72 million conversions.
- Pentecostal or Charismatic Children Speaking in tongues.
- John MacArthur on Tongues. John MacArthur, noted author, pastor and host of the radio program called Grace to You. He is a cessationist and one of the most well-known critics of the charismatic movement.
- With Signs Following: The Story of the Pentecostal Revival in the Twentieth Century
by Stanley Howard Frodsham – an early pentecostal historian.
- Tongues of Fire — Snippets relating to tongues speaking from a late 1800s periodical edited by Frank W. Sandford.
- From a higher criticist perspective, see Hans Conzelmann’s A Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians.
- From a cessationist position, John MacArthur’s, Strange Fire: The Danger of Offending the Holy Spirit with Counterfeit Worship
- The Gift of Tongues: Women’s Xenoglossia in the Later Middle Ages. An excellent book on the history of speaking in tongues.
- A scholarly attempt to historically justify Renewalist tongues, see Edith Waldvogel and George Williams, A History of Speaking in Tongues, as found in The Charismatic Movement.
- From a scientific perspective; G.B Cutten. Speaking with tongues; historically and psychologically considered. New Haven: Yale University Press, (original 1927); Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007.