The Greek Epiphanius Text on the Problem Tongues of Corinth

A Greek source text on the Epiphanius passage about the problem tongues of Corinth:

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ιγ καὶ κα σχόλιον. Πεπλανημένως ὁ Μαρκίων [μετὰ τὸ] «ἀλλὰ ἐν Ὲκκλησιᾳ θέλω πέντε λόγους τῷ νοΐ μου λαλῆσαι», προσέθετο «διὰ τὸν νὸμον».1

ιγ καὶ κα ἔλεγχος. Ἄρα καὶ αἱ γλῶσσαι ἐκ τοῦ χαρίσματος τοῦ πνεύματός εἰσι. γλώσσας δὲ ὁποίας λέγει ὁ ἀπόστολος; ὅπως γνῷ οὐ2 τὰς φωνὰς τὰς Ἑβραΐδας3 τὰς διαφόρως καὶ ποικίλως ἐν ἑκάστῃ λέξει καλῶς μετὰ σοφίας ποικιλθείσας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν κομπώδη γλῶσσαν τῶν Ἑλλήνων αὐχοῦντες, τὸ ἀττικίζειν καὶ αὶολίζειν, καὶ Δωρικῶς4 φθέγγεσθαί56 τινες τῶν παρὰ τοῖς Κορινθίοις τὰς πτύρσεις καὶ στάσεις ἐργασαμένων, οἷς ἡ Ἐπιστολὴ ἐπεστέλλετο.7 καὶ ὡμολόγησε8 μὲν χάρισμα εἶναι πνευματικὸν τὸ ταῖς Ἑβραϊκαῖς λὲξεσι κεχρῆσθαί τε καὶ τὸν νόμον διδάσκειν. οὐ μὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα κομπώδη καθελὼν τῆς τῶν Ἑλλήνων γλώσσης ἔφησεν μᾶλλον γλώσσαις αὐτὸν αὐτῶν λαλοῦντα, διὰ τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν Ἑβραϊον ἐξ Ἑβραιων, παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιὴλ ἀνατεθραμμένον, ὧν Ἑβραίων9 τὰ γράμματα ἐν ἐπαίνοις τίθησι, καὶ τῆς τοῦ πνεύματος δωρεᾶς ὄντα χαρίσματα.10 διὸ καὶ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν [καὶ] Τιμοθέῳ γράφων, ἔλεγεν «Ὅτι ἀπὸ νεότητος ἱερὰ Γράμματα ἔμαθες». ὄτι11 δὲ προστιθεὶς (πρὸς) τοὺς ἀπὸ Ἑλλήνων ποιητῶν καὶ ῥητόρων ὁρμωμένους τὰ ἴσα φάσκων ὁμοίως ἔφη «Πάντων πλέον ὑμῶν λαλῶ γλώσσαις», ἳνα δείξῃ καὶ τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς παιδείας αὐτὸν ἐν πείρᾳ ὑπερβαλλόντως γεγενῆσθαι. καὶ γὰρ καὶ ὁ χαρακτὴρ αὐτοῦ σημαίνει αὐτὸν ὑπάρχειν ἐν προπαιδείᾳ, οὗ12 οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν Ἐπικούρειοι καὶ Στωϊκοὶ ἀντιστῆναι. ἀνατρεπόμενοι διὰ τῆς λογίως παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ13 ἀναγνωσθείσης τοῦ βωμοῦ ἐπιγραφῆς τῆς14 ἐπιγεγραμμένης «τῷ Θεῷ ἀγνώστῳ»,15 ῥητῶς16 ἀναγνωσθείσης παρ᾽ αὐτοῦ καὶ εὐθὺς μεταφραστικῶς ῥηθείσης «ὅν ὰγνοοῦντες εὺσεβεῖτε, τοῦτον ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν» καὶ πάλιν φήσαντος «εἶπέν τις ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης·

Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαι»17

ἵνα τὸν Ἐπιμενιδην δείξῃ, ἀρχαῖον ὄντα φιλὸσοφον, και κτιστὴν18 τοῦ παρὰ Κρησὶν είδώλου·19 Ἀφ᾽οὑπερ καὶ Καλλιμαχος ὁ Λιβυς τἠν μαρτυριαν εὶς ἑαυτὸν συνανέτεινε, ψευδῶς περὶ Διὸς λέγων·

Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται. καὶ γὰρ τάφον, ὦ ἄνα, σεῖο

Κρῆτες ἐτεκτήναντο, σὐ δ᾽οὐ θανες· ἐισὶ γὰρ αὶεί.

kαὶ ὁρᾷς πῶς διηγεῖται περὶ γλωσσῶν ὁ ἅγιος ἀπόστολος, «Ἀλλὰ θέλω πεντε λόγους ἐν Ἐκκλησιᾳ τῷ νοΐ μου», τουτέστιν διὰ τῆς ἑρμηνείας «φράσαι». ὡς ὁ προφήτης, ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ εὶς τὸν νοῦν προκεχορηγημένα φέρων εὶς φῶς διὰ τῆς προφητείας ὠφελεῖ τοὺς ἀκούοντας, οὕτως κὰγὼ [θέλω], φησὶ, λαλῆσαι εὶς ἀκοὴν τῆς ἐκκλησίας καὶ οὶκοδομὴν καὶ μὴ διὰ τοῦ κόμπου Ἑλληνίδος τε καὶ Ἑβραΐδος ἑαυτὸν οὶκοδομεῖν τὸν ειδότα, καὶ οὐχὶ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, δι᾽ἧς ἐπίσταται γλώσσης. σὺ δὲ προσέθηκας, ὦ Μαρκίων, τὸ «διὰ τὸν νὸμον», ὡς τοῦ ἀποστόλου λέγοντος «Θέλω πέντε λόγους ἐν Ἐκκλησιᾳ διὰ τὸν νόμον», αὶδέσθητι, Βαβυλὼν δευτέρα, καὶ καινὴ Σοδόμων πολυμιξία. ἕως πότε συγχεῖς20 τὰς γλώσσας; ἕως πότε τολμᾷς κατὰ τῶν ὑπὸ σοῦ μηδὲν ἀδικουμένων; ζητεἴς γὰρ βιὰσασθαι ἀγγελικὰς δυνάμεις, ἐκβαλὼν τοὺς λόγους τῆς ἀληθείας ἀπὸ τῆς ἐκκλησίας φάσκων τῷ21 Λὼτ τῷ ἁγίῳ «ἐξάγαγε τοὺς ἂνδρας».22 καὶ ὅ ἐπιχειρεῖς κατὰ σεαυτοῦ ἐπιχειρεῖς. τοὺς δὲ λόγους τῆς ἀληθείας οὐκ ἐκβαλεῖς, ἀλλὰ σεαυτὸν πατάσσεις ἐν ἀορασίᾳ, καὶ ἐν νυκτὶ ἐζοφωμένῃ διάγεις, ψηλαφῶν τὴν θύραν, καὶ μὴ εὑρισκων ἔως ἀνατείλῃ ὁ ἥλιος καὶ ἴδῃς τὴν ἡμέραν τῆς κρίσεως· ἐν ᾗ καὶ τό πῦρ ἀπαντήσεται τῇ σῇ ψευδηγορίᾳ. τοῦτο γὰρ σε ἐκδέχεται, ὡς ὁρᾷς. οὔτε γὰρ κεἴται παρα τῷ ἀποστόλῳ [τὸ] «διὰ τὸν νόμον» καὶ παρὰ σοῦ τοῦτο πεποιήτευται. εὶ δὲ καὶ ἔλεγεν ὁ ἀπόστολος «διὰ τὸν νόμον» συνᾳδόντως ἔλεγεν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ κυρίῳ, οὐχ ἳνα καταλύσῃ τὸν νόμον, ἀλλ᾽ ἳνα πληρὼσῃ.

ιδ καὶ κβ σχόλιον. «Ἐν τῷ νόμῳ γέγραπταί ὅτι ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις καὶ ἐν23 χείλεσιν ἑτέροις λαλήσω πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον.»

ιδ καὶ κβ ἔλεγχος. Εὶ μὴ ἐπλήρωσε κύριος τὰ ἐν τῷ νὀμῳ προειρημένα, τίς ἦν χρεία τὸν ἀπόστολον ὑπομνῆσαι τὰ ἀπὸ νόμου ἐν καινῇ διαθήκῃ πληρούμενα; ὡς καὶ ὁ Σωτὴρ ἔδειξεν ὅτι αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ καὶ τότε ἐν νόμῳ λαλήσας καὶ κατὰ ἀπειλὴν ὁρίσας αὐτοῖς λέγων «διὸ προσώχθισα24 τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ καὶ εἶπον, ἀεὶ πλανῶνται τῇ καρδίᾳ, καὶ ὤμοσα εὶ εὶσελεύσονται εὶς τὴν κατὰπαυσιν μου»· διὸ καὶ ἐν ἑτερογλώσσοις ἐπηγγείλατο λαλῆσαι αὐτοῖς, ὡς καἰ ἐλάλησε, καὶ οὐκ είσῆλθον. τοῦτο γὰρ εὑρίσκεται λέγων τοῖς αὐτοῦ μαθηταῖς «ὑμῖν δεδοται25 τὰ μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας, ἐκείνοις δὲ ἐν παραβολαῖς, ἵνα βλέποντες μὴ βλέπωσι» καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. πανταχοῦ τοίνυν ἐν τῇ καινῇ τὰ ἀπὸ παλαιᾶς πληρούμενα, παντί τῳ σαφές έστιν, ὅτι οὐχ ἑτέρου θεοῦ καὶ ἑτέρου θεοῦ,26 ἀλλὰ τοῦ αὐτοῦ αί δύο διαθῆκαι συνίστανται.

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Notes on the Greek Source text:

  • A previous digitized Epiphanius’ Greek text posted on this blog used the Migne Patrologia Graeca version of Against Heresies as the basis. Dr. Karl Holl’s textual work, Epiphanius (Anchoratus und Panarion)27 has now become the source text. He preferred to call it by the original name, the Panarion.

  • Holl’s text is compared against the versions in Migne Patrologia Graeca28 and Franciscus Oehler’s edition found in his Corporis haereseologici.29

  • Both MPG and Oehler liked to add modern capitalization standards to the Greek nouns. This has not been noted in the footnotes. Holl did not follow this convention.

  • MPG and Oehler also used more grammatical points such as commas than Holl did in his text. Holl’s grammatical points were followed but differences were not noted.

  • Holl put lines above characters when they are to be understood as numbers rather than text. This was omitted in the digital copy in the four occasions that it occurs because there is no keystroke for this. It does not change the accuracy of the reading. The reader should be able to identify when the letters are being used as numbers.

  • I would have liked to examine the manuscripts themselves, which Holl has done extensively already. However none of them are easily available, if at all. Holl’s work is quite extensive and it appears no more textual work is required.

  • Holl’s personal editorial notes at the bottom of every page are in German — a language I am not fluent with. Some notes are overlooked because of this.

Footnotes

  1. MPG has ἑτέρως, δὲ διὰ τὸν νὸμον and Oehler has ἕτέρως δε, Διὰ τὸν νόμον. Holl states that ἕτέρως δε is found in Vaticanus gr. 503 and Marcianus 125
  2. Holl has an alternative ὅπως γνῶσιν οἱ Oehler has ὅπως γνῶς, οὐ while MPG has ὅπως γνῶ οὐ
  3. Oehler has a comma after τὰς Ἑβραΐδας,
  4. Vaticanus gr. 503 διορικῶς and Marcianus 125 δοριστικῶς
  5. Oehler has this last portion differently ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν κομπώδη γλῶσσαν τῶν Ἑλλήνων· ηὕχουν τινὲς τὸ Ἀττικίζειν καὶ Αἰολίζειν, καὶ Δωρικῶς φθέγγεσθαι…
  6. Hull refers here vgl. haer. 69,68,4 ὅτι οὐ μίαν μόνον γλῶσσαν προσίεται ὁ θεὸς ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ, ὡς ἐνόμιζον
  7. MPG and Oehler ἐπετέλλετο
  8. MPG and Marcianus 125 ὁμολόγησε
  9. MPG has ὦν (Ἑβραίοις) τὰ…
  10. Holl has δωρεᾶς ὄντα χαρίσματα ὑποδείκνυσιν as a possible ending. The next sentence can alternatively start as: καὶ διὸ Vaticanus gr. 503
  11. Holl has ἔτι while MPG and Oehler have ὄτι I think Holl’s edition is a printing error
  12. Holl has a possible addition here: τῇ σοφίᾳ κηρύσσοντος τὸ εὐαγγέλιον Ἀθήναις
  13. MPG has αὐτῷ
  14. Oehler claims τῆς ἀντία γνωστοῦ ἐπιγεγραμμένης is shown in at least one manuscript, but it is an emendation
  15. MPG has ἀγνώστως
  16. MPG has ῤητορικῶς
  17. Titus 1:12
  18. MPG and Oehler: Μίθρα
  19. MPG footnotes an alternative spelling: εὶδωλίου
  20. MPG: συνέχεις and Oehler: συγχέεις –Oehler’s is likely a print error
  21. this dative article does not exist in MPG or Oehler
  22. Genesis 19:5 The present Septuagint we use has ἐξάγαγε αὐτοὺς πρὸς ἡμᾶς
  23. This ἐν is absent from MPG and Oehler
  24. MPG and Oehler have προσώχθησα
  25. MPG and Oehler have ὑμῖν δεδοται λαλῆσαι
  26. οὐχ ἑτέρου θεοῦ καὶ ἑτέρου, ἀλλὰ in MPG or Oehler
  27. Epiphanius (Anchoratus und Panarion) von Dr. Karl Holl. Zweiter Band. Panarion Haer. 34-64 Leipzig: J.C. Hinrich’sche Buchhandlung. 1922. Pg. 168-171
  28. Migne Patrologia Graeca, Volume 41, Columns 791-795.
    Adversus Hæreses Lib. I. Tom. III – Hæres. XLII
  29. Corporis Haereseologici. Tomus Secundus. Continens S. Epiphanii Epicsopi Constantiensis. Panariorum. Franciscus Oehler, ed. Berolini: A. Asher et Socios. 1859. Pg. 658ff

Charles Sullivan is a researcher and writer on topics of textual criticism, linguistics, theology, Christian mysticism and philosophy. He also frequently likes to delve into contemporary social and ethical issues from a faith perspective.

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