A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe

The book A History of the Rise and Influence of Rationalism in Europe (2 vols., 1865) is a seminal piece of literature. This well written work helps to provide valuable insights for the modern reader with the backstory on the conversion of Europe from a mystical to a rational society.

This book was written by William Lecky, an Irish-Anglican historian and politician (1838–1903). He greatly succeeded in studying and narrating the complex and evolving web of rationalism, morals, miracles, the supernatural, Catholicism, and Protestantism into a systematic and comprehensive portrait.

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Summary of the Gift of Tongues Project: Introduction

A summary of the Gift of Tongues Project in three parts. The following are the results of a detailed study of the doctrine of tongues from inception until 1922. The results are drawn from the Gift of Tongues Project which had a fourfold purpose to: uncover new or forgotten ancient literature on the subject provide … Read more

Pentecostals, Tongues, and Higher Criticism

The academic sources early Pentecostals used to redefine speaking in tongues.

This is the final of a four-part series covering how the traditional definition of tongues all but died and was replaced by the Pentecostal definition.

Pentecostalism remained unsettled on a universally approved redefinition or practice after the missionary crisis. The  language of adoration, singing and writing in tongues, and/or a private act of devotion between a person and God were some of the alternatives practiced in place of the traditional one.

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Solutions to the Pentecostal Tongues Crisis

Pentecostal solutions to the missionary tongues and gibberish crisis. The reasons and logic behind Pentecostals moving from the traditional definition to a number of alternatives: a language of adoration, singing and writing in tongues, and/or a private act of devotion between a person and God. This is part-three of a four-part series covering how the … Read more

Early Pentecostal Tongues in Crisis

The Missionary Tongues, the Missionary Dilemma, and Gibberish. The circumstances that caused a tongues crisis in early Pentecostalism. This is part two of a four-part series on early Pentecostalism that covers how the traditional definition of tongues all but died and replaced by a wider set of expressions; the language of adoration, singing and writing … Read more

Early Pentecostal Tongues: Intro

This four-part series covers how the traditional definition of tongues all but died and replaced by a wider set of expressions; the language of adoration, singing and writing in tongues, and a private prayer language. Some expressions were emphasized more than others. Neither did every Pentecostal organization agree on every redefinition either. The transformation was … Read more