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The Renewalist Response to the Gift of Tongues Project

Current Pentecostal, Charismatic, and Third Wave responses to the Gift of Tongues Project.

A number of readers have asked me lately about the response from the Renewalist communities (Pentecostals, the Charismatic Movement, and affiliations) to the Gift of Tongues Project. Here are a few observations.

An opinion piece

The reader must be aware that the following responses are feelings, opinions, and hunches that are harvested from a very narrow set of data. The results are from personal observations and conversations within the Renewalist communities about speaking in tongues. It is also from data gathered from my website, Facebook ads, and a focus group. Still, even with all these tools at hand, this is speculative and subject to change. Neither do these thoughts align with the standards set out in The Gift of Tongues Project which has a more rigorous objective framework.

One must keep in mind the purpose of the Gift of Tongues Project was not to belittle the Renewalist movement. The Renewalist movement has many positives that far outweigh their idea of speaking in tongues. Their contributions in a multitude of areas have made the world a better place.

The goal of the Gift of Tongues Project is to study the christian doctrine of tongues from inception until the early 1900s. Renewalists are part of the story among many other contributors throughout the doctrine’s 2000 year history. Since there are millions of people currently invested in the Renewalist practice, one would think interest is high, but in reality, it is small. The rest of the article will show why.

Renewalist tongues vs. the traditional definition

The Renewalist contemporary practice of speaking in tongues does not align with the traditional definition. This conclusion was one of the biggest findings of the Gift of Tongues Project. Tongues as a language of adoration, prayer, or worship is a manufactured social phenomenon that is a fairly recent addition to the christian doctrine of tongues (it came after 1906 as a solution to the missionary tongues crisis). It also fits into the Christian retreat into mysticism as a vanguard against the growing threat of empiricism/secularism.

What exactly is happening with those who are presently speaking in tongues as a mode of adoration, prayer or worship? It is a psychological and social phenomenon. This conclusion is not a negative portrait but a realm left unexplored. The discussions in these areas are outside the scope of the Gift of Tongues Project. The GOT Project focuses on ecclesiastical literature, language, history, and a bit of theology.

Various Responses to the Gift of Tongues Project

The The Gift of Tongues Project was specially designed for Renewalists. Therefore, significant effort was made to reach this audience. Engagement continues to be very low.

The Pentecostal Academic community

A Facebook group called the Canadian Pentecostal Research Network— loosely connected with academics and leaders within the Pentecostal Movement in Canada and abroad, had relevant articles from the GOT Project posted there. The cities of Canadian and United States Pentecostal head offices were also targeted with Facebook ads.

An internet search brings the majority of people, and I suspect, Pentecostal academics, to this site. Google search is the number one referrer for the GOT Project. When it comes to using a historical keyword combined with tongues, a GOT Project article has a good chance of coming up on the first page of results.

A few have kindly liked the articles posted but all have refused to engage in any serious discussion. This is partly due to the fact that they have self-described themselves confined as gatekeepers of the distinctive Pentecostal doctrines. Their constituents give little leeway to show any deference. If one reads between the lines, this circumstance compels most Pentecostal leaders to avoid any tongues discussion that does not reinforce their official doctrine.

There is also a serious lack of Pentecostal scholars with a strong education in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew literature, especially anything outside of the Bible. They do not have the collective ability to review or discuss the issue on these grounds.

Another reason they withhold comment is because the findings do not intersect with their fields of study. It is outside their comfort zone.

The Pentecostal academic community may argue the authenticity of the Gift of Tongues Project on academic merit—I only have a Bachelor’s degree. Consequently, an appeal to anyone for the results of the Gift of Tongues Project cannot be made on academic status. Neither can the GOT Project gain authority on my speaking, leadership, marketing, or networking skills within any religious community. The actual work, the data, the analysis, and the presentation has to stand up to scrutiny and judgement on its own merit.

From having surveyed the writings of many Renewalist theologians, this work surpasses any benchmark they have set on pre-1906 research about the christian doctrine of tongues. There is nothing close that matches this work.

Perhaps these are wrong assumptions and more dialogue with this community may offer a different outcome.

The Charismatic Academic community

The Charismatic Movement, or its modern child, Third-Wave Churches (Charismatic churches which blend Evangelicalism and Pentecostalism into its faith and worship system) has no identified community of academics or scholars to draw from in building or guarding their theological and historical frameworks. There is no structure to disseminate or discuss ideas such as this on either a national or local scale. There is no anticipated response because of this.

Local churches and pastors

Tongues is not high on their list of concerns. Pastors and leaders are struggling daily with issues in their congregation about family issues, death, depression, chemical dependencies, suicide, gender issues and a host of other pressing concerns. They don’t want to add a topic that is relatively unimportant in the greater scheme of things to an already fragile environment. This is a legitimate stance from a pastoral perspective that has to be respected.

Reasons for a limited response

Renewalist curiosity is small

The Gift of Tongues Project organized a focus group to gauge reader response back in 2007. An invitation was sent to over 50 people in the Renewalist realm. Three sample chapters from a potential publication were given them to review. Surprisingly, the majority of people who attended were not active tongue speakers or even devout Renewalists but the intellectually curious.

Website feedback has strengthened the fact that most readers that come to the site are not Renewalists: academics, scholars, Catholics, and the intellectually curious Christians are the ones most engaged in the Gift of Tongues Project.

It is a difficult subject for average readers

The market is already saturated with superficial information on this topic. The Gift of Tongues Project is an attempt to counter this ignorance with factual source data and detailed analysis. These two factors inevitably mean that the articles are a complex and difficult read.

The majority of the articles published within the Gift of Tongues Project fall within a score of 50% in the Flesch–Kincaid_readability_tests. This score means that the average article requires a reading level of college or higher. This eliminates a high percentage of readers.

The website also contains a high amount of Greek and Latin texts and references—an approach which appeals only to a small minority. Many readers who see such technical jargon immediately leave. This especially affects members of the Renewalist communities because language study and ancient texts are de-emphasized. The approach of the Gift of Tongues Project is very foreign to them and therefore penetration into their realm of discussions is difficult.

On the other hand, the type of readers attracted to this website like the advanced articles about the Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages. These visits equal the amount coming for the Gift of Tongues Project.

The future of speaking in tongues in Renewalist churches

My feeling is that Pentecostal institutions will openly discuss and even drop their unique doctrine of tongues within the next 30 years. This is not a clinical conclusion but a personal opinion based on observation. The following are some reasons:

Today, many Pentecostal churches simply ignore this practice even though it is in their doctrinal statement. A prominent Pentecostal pastor in Canada told me that there are private discussions to remove tongues from the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada doctrinal statement but there is still some strong resistance that prevents them from approaching the ministerial.

On another occasion, a Pentecostal elder told me about his little church in central British Columbia, Canada, that his fellow members resist holy roller leaders or speakers and force them out. So there is some resistance to not only speaking in tongues, but the extreme form of traditional Pentecostalism found a generation or more ago.

A prominent Pentecostal church here in Winnipeg has been grandfathering the doctrine. This may be representative of a widespread practice. At least in the 1990s, the elderly could express the religious expression of tongues in the service, but the church does not encourage or teach younger people to do the same. I have not attended this Church in the last decade but I suspect that the public exhibition of speaking in tongues is obsolete within their midst.

On the other hand, the topic is a different kettle-of-fish in the Charismatic communities.

Charismatics treat the doctrine of tongues as a taboo subject for open discussion. This is because it is a cornerstone to their identity. The inquiry of this doctrine and even doubting the nature means that you are moving away from or no longer a Charismatic. The pendulum may shift if the Pentecostal community takes the lead and removes the doctrine from their statements of faith—even then it may take some time for Charismatics to reevaluate.

But something is happening here too. Most have removed it from their Sunday morning services and moved it to a special weeknight one in order to avoid public ridicule. However, the Charismatic Movement is very fragmented and whatever may be happening in one church, the opposite could be happening a block away in another. It is hard to tell, even as one who attends a charismatic church, how the Charismatic Movement will handle this doctrine in the future.

Statistics gathered from my use of Facebook ads in relation to The Gift of Tongues Project demonstrate that this is a dead topic with the younger generation. The stats indicate that the practice is of interest for male readers 55 years of age or older.

Female readership engagement is not very strong and the answer remains a mystery. In my experience, more women speak in tongues than men, especially in smaller semi-private settings.

If one turns to Google Analytics and examines search queries on the topic, they are relatively low. It shows a lack of interest in both the Christian and secular communities on the subject.

In short, this peculiar doctrine is extinguishing on its own. The quiet deemphasis is a backdoor for the many church institutions founded on this doctrine to abandon it and move ahead to new directions without controversy and shame.

Charismatic Catholic or Anglican movements are outside the scope of this conversation.

Summary of the Gift of Tongues Project: Introduction

A summary of the Gift of Tongues Project in three parts.

The following are the results of a detailed study of the doctrine of tongues from inception until 1922. The results are drawn from the Gift of Tongues Project which had a fourfold purpose to:

  • uncover new or forgotten ancient literature on the subject
  • provide the original source texts in digital format
  • translate the texts into English and add some commentary
  • to trace the perception of tongues in the church from inception until modern times.

The actual results can be found at the Gift of Tongues Project. Most readers have found the actual Project source texts, principally in Greek and Latin, along with the analysis too complex and desire to read a shortened version. This series of summaries is concerned with the big picture on how the doctrine of tongues was transmitted through the centuries, not the details.

The reader must understand that this doctrine has never been static and has been evolving. This aspect will be amply demonstrated.

People will always be inspired by the pentecostal narrative described in the Book of Acts and the mysterious tongues found later on in the New Testament epistle called I Corinthians. Those accounts have propelled many ardent students of the Bible and the christian faith to reproduce this phenomenon in their lives. The passion for a new Pentecost has cycled for twenty-one-centuries. How communities and persons perceived, practised and passed-on the right throughout these centuries is the goal of this study.

The christian rite of speaking in tongues has been controversial, especially over the last one-hundred years. Speaking in tongues is a practice expressed by Renewalists. Renewalism is the fastest growing christian faith in the world. Many have tried to explain this rite through experiential and psychological terms, but few have attempted an extensive study through historical literature.

This summary fills in the blanks of the historical record that have, up until now, been neglected.

This work is broken up into a three part series. Part 1 traces the evolution of Pentecost from the first to seventeenth-centuries which is inclusive of catholic perceptions. Part 2 focuses on the protestant perceptions which has three distinct doctrinal frameworks. Part 3 is an in-depth look into the Corinthian tongues saga.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
    • What is speaking in tongues today?
    • The absence of historical literature in the modern tongues debate
    • The start and later acceleration of the Gift of Tongues Project
    • Glôssa better translated as language rather than tongue
  • Part 1: A Catholic History of Tongues
    • A pictorial overview on the catholic history of speaking in tongues.

    • The doctrine of tongues from the first to third-century
    • The golden age of the christian doctrine of tongues: the fourth-century
      • The connection between Babel and Pentecost
      • Hebrew as the first language of mankind and of Pentecost
      • Pentecost as a temporary phenomenon
      • Augustine on tongues transforming into a corporate identity
      • Gregory of Nyssa and the one voice many sounds theory
      • Gregory Nazianzus on the miracle of speech vs. the miracle of hearing
    • The expansion of the christian doctrine of tongues from the tenth to sixteenth-centuries
      • Later Medieval accounts of speaking in tongues
      • The legend of Francis Xavier speaking in tongues
  • Part 2: A protestant history of speaking in tongues (in development)
  • Part 3: The corinthians tongue saga (in development)

Introduction

This summary is the result of the Gift of Tongues Project which is designed for the advanced researcher. The Gift of Tongues Project has attempted to identify, collate and digitize the source texts in the original Greek, Latin, with some Syriac, French and a sprinkling of a few other languages. English translations have been provided with almost every text, along with my own analysis. The Gift of Tongues Project differentiates itself from others because the source texts available on the website allow for you to research and draw your own conclusions. All the legwork is already done. All one has to do now is read instead of the time consuming and never ending task of finding the source files. Better yet, the majority is digitally searchable.

Speaking in tongues owes its heritage to a book of the Bible called the Book of Acts. This book was written by a first-century christian follower and a physician named Luke. He only wrote 206 words(1)According to the NIV English Bible to describe the formative event called Pentecost. Pentecost established the foundations for Messianic Judaism and its universal message. This event was described as the Holy Spirit arriving and causing the apostles and 120 others to instantly preach in diverse foreign languages that they did not previously study or know. This explanation is the standard one to help the reader to get started on the subject. The summary will proceed to demonstrate there are many alternative viewpoints.

Perhaps one could argue 800 words when you throw in the defense of the experience by Peter in Acts chapter 2 and the three other instances throughout the Book of Acts. Perhaps Paul could be credited with writing about Pentecost if his coverage in his first letter to the Corinthians contains a parallel, though Part III will show these are not connected. Why all the fuss over 206 words? If it was so important, why didn’t Luke go into much greater detail? This would have spared the modern day reader such a confusion. The clarification is going to take over 10,000 words and the parsing through a magnitude of documents found throughout the centuries to explain those few written words two thousand years ago.

Luke is vague on the actual mechanics and certainly short on details. This leaves his Pentecost and subsequent tongues narratives with many unanswered questions; did every inspired person speak in a single different language and together they were speaking the languages of all the nations? Was it one sound emanating and changed during transmission so that the hearers heard their own language? If it was a miracle of hearing, what was that sound? Were the people conscious of what they were saying or were they completely overtaken by a divine power and had no comprehension about what they were speaking? Was it a heavenly, non-human or prayer language? Did this miracle continue after the first-century? How did this tongues-event get passed down to the next generation? Did it become part of the church liturgy?

The various source manuscripts on the Book of Acts available today do not have any variance that brings about new clues. This necessitates digging deeper into other records.

The Gift of Tongues Project and this summary believe that Pentecostals and Charismatics have brought positive contributions to the greater society, and have made the world a better place. The purpose of this examination is not to attack or denigrate their character. The goal is simply to find the truth of the matter. Nothing more.

As a person who attends a charismatic church and involved in these type of communities for decades, I wanted the results to parallel their experiences. Unfortunately, the findings did not allow for this. Everyone who approaches the 2000 year narrative on speaking in tongues has to allow history to speak for itself – not to rewrite history to justify contemporary experience.

In comparison to the detailed articles posted within the Gift of Tongues Project, few footnotes will be given here, and some ancient authors and minor movements will be ignored. One can find substantiation at the Gift of Tongues Project webpage. Links to the Gift of Tongues Project pages will be highlighted throughout. The results are subject to change as new information comes forward.

This work traces the perception of tongues speaking through the centuries. Perception is not necessarily reality. On many occasions, the work will reference the perception with no remarks about the integrity of the event or person. This is up to the reader to decide.

What is speaking in tongues today?

Speaking in tongues is an inherent part of the present pentecostal and charismatic identities. This practice is one of the key features that distinguish them apart from other christian movements.

How popular is speaking in tongues? A Pew Forum study has concluded one-quarter of all Christians are Renewalist Christians – a term given for those who emphasize miracles, supernatural occurrences, and oftentimes speaking in tongues within the Christian’s everyday life. Really, it is an umbrella term for Pentecostals, Charismatics, Third-Wavers and those who remain in mainstream denominations influenced by Pentecostals and Charismatics. There are an estimated 584 million Renewalists in the world. Perhaps even more. (2)http://www.pewforum.org/2011/12/19/global-christianity-movements-and-denominations/ This does not mean all those defined as Renewalists emphasize this doctrine and practice it. The same Pew study further demonstrates that no more than 53% of Renewalists speak in tongues in any country they examined. In most instances, it is less.(3)Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. October 2006. Pg. 16 My conservative estimate tallies about 150 million people consistently practising the christian rite of speaking in tongues throughout the world.

The Renewalist faith, with its emphasis on holiness, mysticism, independence, and easy adaptability to different cultures, is the fastest growing segment of Christianity in the world. Their christian mystic framework along with its distinctive theology of speaking in tongues makes a historical study imperative.

What do Renewalists presently believe speaking in tongues to be? There is a general agreement that speaking in tongues is a supernatural phenomenon — one that cannot be measured or defined by science. Some Renewalists call it a heavenly language that only the individual, God, and a special interpreter understands. Others say it is a private prayer language or a form of exalted worship. There are those who just shrug their shoulders and say it is simply a God thing that defies explanation. A handful may say speaking in tongues is the spontaneous ability to speak a foreign language. Most Renewalists believe that speaking in tongues is a deliberate outcome of a controlled mind – in other words, they are not crazies or kooks whose erratic behavior is in an uncontrolled hallucinatory state. They are regular people like the helpful neighbor across the street, the taxi driver, teacher, dentist, nurse, plumber, politician, lawyer or construction worker. Renewalists are found in all walks of life.

A good example of a Renewalist speaking in tongues is found in this video clip of the late Kenneth Hagin. He was a highly respected and influential pentecostal preacher in the mid-1900s.

Hagin appears as an elder statesman. He has a father like persona that the people in the audience are attracted to and appreciate. The young lady who is a distance behind Hagin in the video approves his message with an accepting smile. About four minutes into the video, he utters, “Memen hatsu toro menge kanga deging bango ondu konste fre peffe hemo outse,” and then begins to laugh. The laughter implies an overabundance of a spiritual force that overwhelms the senses, forcing the speaker into an uncontrolled fit. The audience cheered Hagin for more.

This is a typical example, though speaking in tongues is not always done in a Sunday service. It is practised more frequently in weekday services, prayer sessions, pastoral settings, and special events.

A more contemporary example is Reinhard Bonnke. Bonnke is a German-born evangelist whose work in Africa, especially Nigeria has earned him the rank of one the top preachers of all time in respect to audience reach. The example here is his public speaking in tongues at a large indoor gathering somewhere in Asia. His Christ for the Nations website claims over 55 million documented decisions for Christ under his ministry.

Bonnke’s demonstration is not as obvious as Hagin’s. He mixes regular language and charismatic, excitable speech between short outbursts of tongues-speech. The audience is energized but not surprised by this presentation. This is quite common in renewalist circles.

The absence of historical literature in the modern tongues debate.

After an exhaustive approach of locating, digitizing, translating and analyzing two-thousand years worth of texts, the results of the Gift of Tongues Project has found one of the main challenges to solving this debate is overcoming the embedded ignorance of history.

This finding was not anticipated at the start. The Project assumed at the beginning there was little christian literature throughout the centuries to build a case. Rather, there is a substantial corpus of ancient christian literature on the subject. The discovery about the abundance on the subject has created two rival stories. The first allows the building of a compelling narrative on the doctrine of tongues throughout the centuries. The second is the narrative about the ignorance of christian literature over the last two centuries and how it has contributed to the modern definition. Both play an important story in the modern definition and I am not sure which one is more important. They share a complex interplay that is difficult to untangle.

The start and later acceleration of the Gift of Tongues Project.

The Project was started in the 1980s, but little was done until the early 2000s. The initial goal was to parse through the collection of church writings found in the massive Migne Patrologia Graeca series and its Latin counterpart, Migne Patrologia Latina. There is no digital version of MPG available, so a page-by-page visual scan was required. This was a very time-consuming process – especially with over 135 volumes averaging 1200 pages each. This was a long process.

Thankfully the internet age came along. Museums and other institutions have posted many manuscripts online. Better manuscripts are now available than the ones found in MPG. The ability to do digital searches with Google’s search engine reveals even more texts. The Gift of Tongues Project is one of the direct benefactors of the digitization of libraries, museums, and institutions.

Glôssa better translated as language rather than tongue

Glôssa (γλῶσσα) is the pivotal key word for the doctrine of tongues in the original Greek text. This word is the central theme found in Paul’s address to the Corinthians and Luke’s description of the first Pentecost. This noun is further used by later Greek ecclesiasts and authors on the subject.

The challenge is how a contemporary researcher is to translate this word without a modern bias.

When the Greek keyword appears, or if it is found in a Latin text, which is lingua, my mind always wants to automatically translate it as tongue.

The word tongues, which is seldom used in our modern language to specifically mean a modern, regular or contemporary language, is usually understood to be something out-of-this-world, unusual or even weird. Sometimes it is used a synonym to language, but rarely in contemporary literature is it a predominant descriptor.

As I have worked over both Greek and Latin Patristic texts, from the likes of Greek writers such as Irenaeus, Origen, Gregory Nazianzus, Cyril of Alexandria, Epiphanius, John of Damascus etc., to the Latin writers of Augustine, the Venerable Bede, Thomas Aquinas, the Ambrosiaster authors, and many more, they do not contain references to the gift being a strange, mystical or heavenly language that needs a new definition. It simply means a human language to them. To advance such a thought that it was different from a human language, they would have had to take extra steps to make it distinct. They never did.

Secondly, one must keep in mind that the noun language was the dominant English word used to translate glôssa/γλῶσσα before the introduction of the Geneva Bible in 1534.

See The Unknown Tongues in the English Bible for more information.

It would not be fair to translate the church fathers on the subject using tongues instead of languages. It significantly changes the nuance of the text when it is done.

One could argue that I am forcing my own interpretation on the text. However, it is believed that language is more accurate to what the writers meant.

This changes things considerably, instead of Acts 2:4 reading as other tongues the proper reading is other languages. The other tongues creates ambiguities that never existed in the Greek. Other languages immediately starts to clarify a difficult subject.

Now that the introductory remarks have been covered, it is time to get into the narrative itself.

Next: A Catholic History of Tongues

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