The protestant view of miracles from Martin Luther to the Church of England.
This is part 3 of a series surveying the doctrine of cessationism.
Part 1 was an introduction and a general summary. Part 2 gave a background to the medieval mindset that was highly dependant on the supernatural, magic and mystery in daily living. It also covered the re-examination of earlier christian history by prominent English leaders to demonstrate that miracles had ceased.
This series has a tertiary focus on the role of speaking in tongues within the cessationist doctrine. Those who adhere to a strong adherence to cessationism categorize tongues as a miracle, and since all miracles have ceased, the christian rite of tongues is no longer available. Any current practice is considered a false one.
This forces this series to shift away from the christian doctrine of tongues, and move into the protestant doctrine of miracles.
This article will demonstrate the Puritans were largely responsible for shaping the doctrine of cessationism through various means, especially the Westminster Confession. This doctrine may be the English Church’s most recognizable contribution to the protestant revolution throughout the world.
The Early Protestant De-Emphatics: Martin Luther and Jean Calvin
The Church of England and Miracles
The Puritan Influence: William Whitaker, William Perkins, James Ussher, the Westminster Confession, and later Confessions
The Rationalists and Deists
Cessationism from the 1800s and onwards: the Baptists, Presbyterians, B. B. Warfield, christian higher education, John MacArthur, and more.
Cessationism is a religious term used in various protestant circles that believe miracles in the church died out long ago and have been replaced by the authority of Scripture. Cessationist policy is typically found in Presbyterian, conservative Baptist, Dutch Reformed churches, and other groups that strictly adhere to early protestant reformation teachings.
It is a doctrine that had its zenith in the late 1600s, waned a bit in the 1800s and recharged in the 1900s. Today, the doctrine of cessationism has considerably subsided. However, it cannot be ignored if one is doing a thorough study of the doctrine of tongues. It is an important part of history.
The following infographic was created to describe why the concept of adjective+tongues such as other tongues, strange tongues, and unknown tongues was added to I Corinthians. The results may surprise many observers — the adjective+tongues is an English Bible translation phenomenon that started in the 1500s.
At the end, the graph demonstrates that Pentecostals and Charismatics have seriously overlooked the historical background of other tongues. The addition of other tongues in I Corinthians in the 1500s was one of the biggest polemic volleys by the Protestants against the Catholic Church. One must keep in mind that most Pentecostal and Charismatic scholars are aware that the other tongues doctrine is a weak one–tenuous to hold on any occasion. They would not argue against the results here. However, the majority of lay persons in these movements are unaware and hold to this doctrine.