Hebrew, Aramaic and more

Articles and resources on Hebrew and Aramaic literature. These references assume at least an elementary understanding of Hebrew or Aramaic. The priority is given to those that are openly accessible and free resources available on the internet.

Thoughts on Hebrew and Aramaic literature

A Grammar for Gemara and Targum Onkelos

A review of this must-have book for anyone wishing to read or translate the Talmud.

Attempts on Translating Rashi and Jewish Aramaic

Tools and Methods to translate Rashi

Existing English Translations of Rashi

A brief survey of where to find comprehensive English translations of Rashi’s works

Notes for Learning Ancient Hebrew

Why learning modern Hebrew is the best place for the beginner to enter into the world of ancient Jewish literature.

A History of Chapters and Verses in the Hebrew Bible

The complex story on the present chapter and numbering system of the Hebrew Bible.

The Influence of Aramaic on Hebrew

How Aramaic typography ruled the writing world of the ancient Hebrews from the first century onwards.

Hebrew Resources

A Hebrew – English Bible According to the Masoretic Text and the JPS 1917 Edition

The Old Testament with the Hebrew text paralleled with the English one. Great for a quick reference. Not a source for any critical analysis of the Hebrew text.

Leningrad Codex

A digitized version of the text found in the Westminster Leningrad Codex.


A modern Hebrew website that is both Hebrew and English sensitive. The dictionary can capture both ancient and modern nuances. Lots of irritating popup ads.

Sefaria.org – dictionaries

This site has Marcus Jastrow’s Dictionary of Targumim, Talmud and Midrashic Literature along with Kleine’s Dictionary digitally captured and searchable. A must have tool.

Sefaria.org – texts

A great site with a vast library of Jewish writings including the Talmud in the original languages and often with English translations. The English is somewhat confusing and better versions do exist out there. All in all the best multi-lingual site of this nature.

The Hebrew Numbering System

Do you come across a Hebrew or Aramaic text and the numbering system is only in these languages? If you are like me, you sometimes forget. This handy chart helps you quickly identify them.

תלמוד בבלי

The Talmud and other related documents at a modern Hebrew Wiki site. Knowledge of Hebrew is required to use this site.


An odd looking interface for a website that assists in studying the Talmud both in the original and English. However, after getting over the initial hurdle, it is a very helpful resource for readers with English as a first language and know a little Aramaic.

Aramaic Resources


A great resource for anything related to the Syriac New Testament. Designed for the new learner or the advanced Syriac reader. It connects with the common Syriac dictionaries too.

The Syriac Old Testament

Finding an online Syriac New Testament is rather easy. Finding the Old is a little more difficult. Here are two sites: Mandenka. This site is entirely in Syriac only. The CAL Lexicon by Hebrew Union College. The interface is not very intuitive. You need to go down the page to 62001 P Gn to begin reading or examining the OT texts.

BibleHub Syriac New Testament

If reading a Syriac New Testament including the page, title, and headers, with no English references at all is a little overwhelming, then this site will help you overcome this problem.


A list of hyperlinks to good Syriac resources.

Syriac Dictionary in Four Languages

A handy and easy to use Syriac dictionary.

Uhlemann’s Syriac Grammar

A clear, concise Syriac-English grammar. It is old, probably outdated, but it is free for download and easily available.